Hey guys! Welcome to [Grammar]! Check the answers to part 4:
- has forgotten;have been waiting; has taken
- has been raining
- had been waiting
Today I’d introduce the concept and classification of NOUNS.
A noun is a word that generally represents a person, thing, place, or abstract concept. According to their lexical meaning.
Nouns are usually divided into proper nouns and common nouns. And common nouns can be subdivided into four categories: individual nouns, material nouns, collective nouns and abstract nouns according to their grammatical nature.
2.1 Proper Nouns
Proper nouns mainly refer to the proprietary names of people, places, organizations, institutions, etc. The first letter of a proper noun is usually capitalized, such as Mary, Mr. Black, Paris, Sunday, September, French, etc.
My name is Mary.
Today is Sunday.
2.2 Common Nouns
Common nouns usually refer to the general names of people, things, concepts, and so on. In fact, except for proper nouns, the other nouns can be called common nouns, such as boy, pen, teacher, water, idea, cloudy, money, etc. Note that there are a few common nouns that have the same form as a proper noun, except that the first letter is used in lowercase when used as a common noun, and the first letter is used in uppercase when used as a proper noun.
He saw the best china in China.
Mrs Green likes to wear green clothes.
2.3 Individual Nouns
The so-called individual noun refers to the noun of the individual representing the person or thing, such as boy, girl, tree, book, cup, desk, etc. Generally, individual nouns are countable.
There was a tree in that garden.
The boy and the girl are reading a book.
2.4 Material Nouns
Material nouns refer to things that cannot be divided into individuals, such as air, sand, meat, wine, paper, ink, gas, water, wood, etc. Generally, material nouns are uncountable.
We cannot live without air.
It is necessary for us to drink 8 cups of water every single day.
2.5 Collective Nouns
Collective nouns refer to a collection of individuals, such as family, army, committee, etc. Some of the collective nouns are countable. For example, a family refers to “one family”, two families refers to “two families” (rather than two people); and some collective nouns are uncountable, such as jewelry, furniture and so on.
Most people regard a television set as an essential piece of furniture.
She wears jewelry very often.
2.6 Abstract Nouns
Abstract nouns represents abstract concepts such as nature, behavior, state, and emotion. Words like age, money, failure, work, music, courage, joy are abstract nouns. Most of them are uncountable.
Failure is the mother of success.
I like listening to soothing music.
That’s just a simple introduction and explanation on NOUNS. Take some time to review all the examples.
Feel free to leave comments if you have any questions.
See you next time!