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5. Present Perfect Verb Forms
This form indicates an action that is finished. It is used to connect two points in time.
Form: has/have + past participle
- Statement: She has finished all her homework.
- Question: Have you finished your homework?
- Negative: She has not finished her homework.
- We use the present perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now.
- We CANNOT use the present perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, at that moment, that day, one day, etc.
- We CAN use the present perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.
I have put away all the laundry.(√)
I have put away all the laundry this morning.(×)
6. Past Perfect Verb Forms
This form expresses actions in the past that finished before another action (also in the past) started. It connects two different times or actions in the past.
Form: had + past participle
- Statement: She had finished all her homework before she went out.
- Question: Had you finished your homework before you went out?
- Negative: She had not finished her homework before she went out.
The past perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.
7. Future Perfect Verb Forms
This form expresses actions that will be finished at some point in the future. It connects the present to a point in the future.
Form: will/be going to have + past participle
- Statement: I will have finished all my homework by Friday.
- Question: Will you have finished your homework by Friday?
- Negative: She will not have finished her homework by Friday.
→ I will finish my homework some time between now and Friday. I don’t know exactly when I’ll finish, but I know that it will be somewhere in this period between now and the future(Friday).
The future perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future.
- By the time your plane lands, we will have gone to sleep.
- I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o’clock.
Fill the blank spaces with correct forms of the words.
1. A: Did you like the movie “Star Wars?”
B: I don’t know. I (see, never) _______ that movie.
2. Sam (arrive) _______ in San Diego a week ago.
3. I can’t believe I (get) _______ that apartment. I (submit) ________ my application last week, but I didn’t think I had a chance of actually getting it. When I (show) ________ up to take a look around, there were at least twenty other people who (arrive) ________ before me. Most of them (fill, already) ________ out their applications and were already leaving. The landlord said I could still apply, so I did.
4. Don’t worry. By the time you get back, I (pick) ________ up the living room.
5. They (arrive) ________ around 6 o’clock.
Next episode we will talk about Perfect Continuous Verb Forms!